December 2018

It may happen that even if the C# programs are compiled without errors, there is no program output in the console. The reason can be that while the output of the program is being buffered it is not displayed to the end user immediately. It is difficult to say why this exactly happens, as this can be system- or compiler-specific. However, there is a simple remedy.

To unbuffer the output, you will need to flush it with
function after the buffer is used. On the example of the Granger causality Diks-Wolski codes (you can find them
here), find the first occurrence of
function and just flush it right after
printf("Input file (X): "); 
In the example above
is the standard output buffer. It is the default file descriptor where a program can write its o...

December 2018

Recently, I have received many questions on how one can run the C# codes to replicate my research results and to extend them to other applications. While C# makes the computations very efficient, it is not the most friendly language for the end users, especially for the ones that have little experience with programming. Nevertheless, the overall process is quite simple and I outline it below. It should work for any OS.

C# programming language is set of commands and structures which make the algorithms intuitive and understandable for humans. Although it is low-level, meaning that its operations are very closely linked to the core computer architecture, the machines cannot understand them instantly. To make the C# programs understandable for your computer, you will need to compile them.

There are multiple C# compilers available, some of them even available online. I typically use the GCC compiler (

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M. Wolski
Marcin Wolski, PhD
European Investment Bank
E-mail: M.Wolski (at)
Phone: +352 43 79 88708

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